As we advance further into the 21st century, technology is becoming more and more integrated into our society. Smart phones are now commonplace, tablets are replacing or substituting for computers and laptops, and social media has become second nature. The rapid and widespread adoption of these technological innovations has completely changed the way we conduct our daily lives, including how knowledge is accessed, digested and taught in our classrooms. With the world literally at their fingertips, today’s students need teachers and administrators to re-envision the role of technology in the classroom. To make the students ready and equipped for the 21st Century we have to develop in them the 21st Century Skills, which is possible only with a fusion of the traditional three R’s with four C’s: critical thinking, creativity, communication, and collaboration. The four C’s and three R’s are effectively developed with the integration of technology in education. The teachers should therefore be equipped with the technology in order to be competent to meet the requirements of the techno society.
The need for including techno-pedagogy in curriculum needs no further justification. I am sure that, any change in any field will have to overcome the resistance of a few who are static to the dynamics of the society due to their stagnant thoughts. With time they will surely fade out giving space to creative and vibrant people. We should always remember that we teachers of the present era are techno-migrants who have to deal with the students who are techno citizens, who are better equipped. So equip yourself for survival or be prepared to just perish.
Overall, integrating technology into the classroom helps prepare our students for the elaborate world they will face going forward, and there are specific benefits to using technology in the classroom:
Ø It can keep students focused for longer periods of time
Ø It makes students more excited to learn
Ø It enables students to learn at their own pace
Ø It prepares students for the future
The integration of technology in education surely promotes student achievement and prepares them for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access. Acquiring techno-pedagogical proficiencies will make teaching and learning a pleasurable exercise as it would lessen the pressure on the teachers and enable the students to delve deeper into domain of knowledge.
Technological pedagogical content knowledge refers to the knowledge and understanding of the interplay between CK, PK and TK when using technology for teaching and learning (Schmidt, Thompson, Koehler, Shin, & Mishra, 2009). It includes an understanding of the complexity of relationships between students, teachers, content, practices and technologies. (Archambault & Crippen, 2009).
TPACK or TPCK
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) attempts to identify the nature of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration in their teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge.
TPACK consists of seven different knowledge areas: (i) Content Knowledge (CK), (ii) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK), (iii) Technology Knowledge (TK), (iv) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), (v) Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), (vi) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and (vii) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). All of these knowledge areas are considered within a particular contextual framework.
“Reproduced by permission of the publisher, © 2012 by tpack.org”
At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). The TPACK approach goes beyond seeing these three knowledge bases in isolation. The TPACK framework goes further by emphasizing the kinds of knowledge that lie at the intersections between three primary forms: Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK).
Content Knowledge (CK)
Content knowledge may be defined as “a thorough grounding in subject matter” or “command of the subject” (American Council on Education, 1999). It may also include knowledge of concepts, theories, conceptual frameworks as well as knowledge about accepted ways of developing knowledge (Shulman, 1986).
Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)
Pedagogical knowledge includes generic knowledge about how students learn, teaching approaches, methods of assessment and knowledge of different theories about learning (Harris et al., 2009; Shulman, 1986). This knowledge alone is necessary but insufficient for teaching purposes. In addition a teacher requires content knowledge.
Technology Knowledge (TK)
Technology knowledge refers to an understanding of the way that technologies are used in a specific content domain. Within the context of technology integration in schools, it appears to most often refer to digital technologies such as laptops, the Internet, and software applications. It is the knowledge of the teacher about the operation of these technological devices like slide projectors, LCD projectors, visualisers etc. and the use of software in developing instructional materials.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
Pedagogical content knowledge is knowledge about how to combine pedagogy and content effectively (Shulman, 1986). This is knowledge about how to make a subject understandable to learners. Archambault and Crippen (2009) report that PCK includes knowledge of what makes a subject difficult or easy to learn, as well as knowledge of common misconceptions and likely preconceptions students bring with them to the classroom. It is the knowledge of the efficacy with which content can be transacted in class.
Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)
Technological content knowledge refers to knowledge about how technology may be used to provide new ways of teaching content (Niess, 2005). For example, digital animation makes it possible for students to conceptualize how electrons are shared between atoms when chemical compounds are formed. It is the knowledge of how to judiciously integrate technology in the effective transaction of a lesson.
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)
Technological pedagogical knowledge refers to the affordances and constraints of technology as an enabler of different teaching approaches (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). For example online collaboration tools may facilitate social learning for geographically separated learners.